The PhD slump

The PhD slump

Everyone’s PhD is different and we all go through highs and lows. What I call ‘the PhD slump’ is that period many of us experience where we severely struggle with motivation, focus, belief in ourselves and passion for what we’re doing. Being in this negative phase is tough, and something numerous people I know (as well as myself) have been through.

I’d say it’s most common when students are halfway into their PhD. They start to question “will I have enough data to get this PhD?” and “will I be able to get it all done in the remaining time?”. An unsupportive supervisory team also makes it harder and some may experience the PhD slump due to burnout.

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PhD Comics

I share my experiences and advice on my Instagram account where I strive to give an honest and real feel about the PhD journey. Recently numerous people have reached out to me through social media and in person asking for help with their struggles, so what better time to share some tips…

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My 10 top tips:


1. Acceptance

Accepting you are going through a tough phase weirdly helps to relax into it. It will help you to gain some perspective on your situation. Having this self-awareness enables you to help yourself and find ways to work your way out of it.

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2. Asking for help is a strength, not a weakness

Friends and family are wonderful, but also seek out support from your university. What support systems do they have in place? Is there a mentoring scheme where you can chat to another academic in confidence? Having an outside perspective who understands the academic system can be really useful. If you can speak to your supervisor about your troubles, then great! Having an open and honest conversation can take a big weight off your shoulders.

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3. Focus on each day at a time

Set daily goals. Tick them off one-by-one. This will help you be productive and in turn become more motivated. It’s all about the positive feedback loop! It may take time, and it might be tough, but stick at it.

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4. Do little things you love to stay positive

Balance out those daily tasks with rewards. It makes the working day that little bit easier. Self-care is especially important during this time, so make sure you treat yourself whether that’s with a glass of bubbles, watching your favourite movie or chilling with friends.

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5. Exercise, sleep and eat well

Mental and physical health is so important. Be mindful of the fundamentals in leading a healthy life. Getting enough sleep, exercising regularly and eating the right food helps us to be more positive and productive.

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6. Manage those expectations of yourself

So you’re finding things tough right now? Don’t expect yourself to be able to work like crazy! Don’t even put that pressure on yourself. Understand you, what you feel like each day, what you can realistically get done, and go back to point #3, plan each day to as you feel.

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7. Don’t panic, think logically

Too much work, not enough time? Don’t panic, it’s not constructive! Make a list of your top priorities, your secondary priorities, and the less important ones. Plan when you’ll get the top priorities done and fit the others around them if realistically possible. Remember, a thesis is barely ever a finished story.

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8. Stay accountable

When you’re in a rubbish phase, self-motivation is a lot harder. Let a friend know your work goal that day or week so you are accountable to someone. I recommend setting a weekly meeting with your supervisor(s) so you can discuss your plan and you don’t go off track.

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9. Time out

We all need time off, especially if you are feeling burnt out. Take a break to go on holiday or even a long weekend. Like I said, it’s all about the self-care. It will help you to recuperate, get some energy back and give you that motivation to push out of this PhD slump.

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10. Keep going!

I know this isn’t what people like to hear, but put all of these points into practice and really try to stick at them. Little steps each day make big progress and will really help you to feel much more positive about your PhD and your day-to-day life!

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Exploring Iceland after submitting my upgrade thesis

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Are you in this slump right now? Have you been in it and climbed back out? What tips do you have to go from being negative about your PhD to positive? As always, please share your thoughts in the comments below.

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Scientist Showcase: Dr. Chrissy Jones

Scientist Showcase: Dr. Chrissy Jones

Since starting my blog I’ve interacted with so many other inspiring scientists, and I want to share their amazing journeys in STEM with you guys. I’m therefore thrilled to introduce my new feature – Scientist Showcase!

For the very first feature we have the beautiful Chrissy behind the Making it Mindful blog. I absolutely love what she writes about, in fact she was one of my nominees for the Versatile Blogger Award, so naturally I’m super excited to introduce you to her!

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Chrissy is a lecturer in Pharmacy Practice and research associate at The University of Manchester. She studied Psychology for her undergrad and masters degree, and during this time was introduced to the world of pharmacy through training to be a pharmacy dispenser. This all lead to her PhD combining both Psychology and Pharmacy. She’s a massive lover of Britney Spears and speaks fluent Welsh, how cool is that?!

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Tell us a little more about your research

My research explores how and why procedures are bypassed or deviated from in community pharmacy. In my PhD I conducted 13 focus groups to understand what the prevailing safety culture looks like in pharmacies. I then interviewed pharmacy frontline staff to ask them about specific instances of where they had bypassed or deviated from procedures and their reasons for doing so. Finally, I created a questionnaire based on a novel psychological theory to further understand the behavioural drivers for bypassing or deviating from procedures on a larger scale. In 2016 I had a paper published which was a huge milestone for me.

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Day in the life of Chrissy

So why a blog on mindfulness?

I’m a psychologist by background, I was fascinated by how the human mind works. However, the reason I got into mindfulness was because I was suffering from health anxiety a few years ago, following an asthma diagnosis. The constant anxious thoughts of “what if I have an asthma attack?” were completely exhausting. In an effort to become less anxious I looked into meditation and was astounded by it! I had a few seconds of complete silence in my mind. It was such a relief after the constant chatter of anxious thoughts. Since then I’ve tried to bring mindfulness into my daily life as it helps me to stay present rather than worrying about a future event that might never happen. I therefore love writing about practical ways to use mindfulness. I also wrote a few posts about what it felt like to be at certain stages of my PhD. PhDs can be isolating, so to hear people say that they felt the same way too was really comforting.

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How can we be more mindful?

When you find your mind wandering come back to your senses. What can you hear right now? What can you see? This helps to ground us in the present and to experience life as it is happening. Often our daily tasks like having a shower and driving to work can be done on autopilot. Commit to noticing what it feels like to do these tasks. Appreciate the moment and find joy in the mundane everyday tasks. This small change can lead to a big difference, and help to stop the feeling that life is passing you by.

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Maintaining a work-life balance is vital. How do you balance the two?

I love spending time with my family and friends, and I always make sure that I have something to look forward to in my diary. It helps me to schedule my time and motivates me to complete tasks so that I can really enjoy my down time without worrying about work.

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Graduating from her PhD at The University of Manchester

I see you’re passionate about inspiring young girls?

My mum always told me that I could do anything that I put my mind to, and I am passionate about inspiring girls to live the life that they want rather than the life that they think they should have just because they’re a girl. In an effort to instil confidence in young people I have visited schools and presented to young women about believing in their potential. I have also been interviewed for Women in Science where I talk about how I felt during my career so far – the fears, the doubts, and the lows. With social media, things can look incredibly rosy from the outside. It’s important to show that we are all human and we all struggle sometimes.

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A big part of my blog is to dish out PhD SOS tips. What are your dos and don’ts?!

Don’t let feeling like a fraud stop you. I would bet that everyone doing a PhD feels like an imposter at some point (check out Hugh Kearns’ work on imposter syndrome). It’s something many PhD students experience, so talk about it and look for all of the evidence that exists to show that you are worthy of being exactly where you are.

Do a PhD in a topic that you are genuinely passionate about. The years spent studying for my PhD were three of my favourite years of my life so far! I have no doubt that this was because I believed in my project, I could see the potential that the project had for making a positive difference in practice, that was what motivated me during the hard times.

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Thank you so much to Chrissy for being my first feature and taking the time to be interviewed! Please check out her amazing blog at Making it Mindful. She also shares mindful and inspiring quotes and posts on her @makingitmindful Instagram and Twitter accounts, so be sure to give her a follow!

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Every month I’ll be showcasing another scientist so stay tuned to learn about more incredible people!

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Healthy foundations: Getting those Zzzs

Healthy foundations: Getting those Zzzs

A lot of people I know (including myself) are mindful about maintaining a healthy lifestyle. What’s been amazing is that quite a few of my followers have asked me to do some blog posts on this, how perfect! So here you are, the first in my mini series “Healthy foundations” which I’m really excited about!

Today’s topic is something we all love – SLEEP!

There are many factors important in promoting good health including hydration, nutrition and exercise. But getting optimal sleep is vital for that all important brain power. It will encourage a more positive mindset for the day which will naturally make you more motivated, focused and productive. So, are you getting enough sleep? Are you functioning optimally?

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Why is sleep so important?

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Sleep is one of the foundations for good health. It’s actually a necessity for us to live. We hear a lot about how sleep affects our wellbeing but here’s a fun fact for you – sleep is still a mystery to scientists! There’s a lot we don’t know. However, we do know that a lack of it affects many biological processes.

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“There is no tissue within the body and no process within the brain that is not enhanced by sleep, or demonstrably impaired when you don’t get enough”

– Matt Walker, Center for Human Sleep Science, Uni of California.

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Research suggests that good quality sleep is associated with:

  • Memory consolidation – strengthens neural connections & reduces unwanted ones.
  • Repair and growth – sleep is healing time! It’s when our bodies reset.
  • Emotional stability – deprivation is associated with depression.
  • Decision making – organises information and switches off the stress response.

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Image credit: Tatiana Shepeleva – Shutterstock

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What about the impact of not getting enough sleep?

Well it definitely has a negative effect on our health, that’s for sure! It’s known to increase inflammation and impair our immune system and appetite. This leads to conditions such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, heart disease and autoimmune disorders. Sleep deprivation has also been linked to mental health disorders such as depression, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, as well as increasing the risk of neurological conditions such as Alzheimer’s. Toxins, like those associated with Alzheimer’s, are cleared during sleep.

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So, what determines our sleep?

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There are two main factors…

 

Circadian clock

Our bodies have an internal “clock” in the brain which is regulated by our 24-hour biological clock, known as the circadian rhythm. It relies on light, so daylight and darkness determine when we should be awake and when we should be asleep. During the day, light detected by the retina in the back of the eye sends signals to a region in the brain called the SCN (suprachiasmatic nucleus) within the hypothalamus. From here, signals lead to reduced melatonin levels (which when raised initiates the desire to sleep), increased body temperature and an increase in hormones such as the stress hormone cortisol.

Sleep pressure

The longer you’re awake, the more your body is shouting out for you to sleep. A molecule called adenosine increases in the brain throughout the day, which sends signals that make us want to sleep. When we sleep, that sleep pressure is taken off.

 

Image credit: Medscape
Image credit: Medscape

 

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What is the right amount?

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Everyone is different and the optimal amount of sleep varies from person to person. Our genes, age and lifestyle all affect our requirement. But as adults, scientists say that the optimal amount is 7-9 hours.

Warning! More sleep doesn’t always mean you’re better off! Too much of anything can be a bad thing. Some people think they function fine on less than the 7 hours sleep. Yes, some people are able to cope with fewer hours, but they might just be used to the effects of sleep deprivation without realising it! 

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Image credit: Mindful

A research group looking at students sleeping for only 4 hours on 6 consecutive nights found that the they developed increased blood pressure, levels of that stress hormone cortisol, and an increased insulin resistance, which affects the body’s glucose handling. So chronic sleep deprivation is not doing you any favours!

Those of you who are sleep deprived, I do bring you some good news! This group found that temporary sleep deprivation could be reversed with adequate sleep. Those moments of joy we call ‘naps’ can help to repay this sleep debt but it’s not ideal. Get that good quality 7 hours in to begin with.

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Top tips for better sleep:

  • Don’t use your phone before bed! – I know it’s tempting but blue light (which our phones and laptops emit) stimulate that internal clock I was telling you about. It effectively tricks your brain into thinking it’s daytime, making it harder to sleep. Put a blue filter on, like “f.lux” if you are going to use it.
  • Reduce caffeine intake before bed – caffeine blocks those adenosine receptors in the brain so the desire to sleep will be severely reduced.
  • Be more mindful – be aware of how much of that Zzzz you are getting and how much more you need to get that 7 hours minimum. Having alerts on your phone telling you to get ready for bed will help!
  • Holidays – if you’re in a really bad pattern of consistent sleep deprivation, a holiday will reset you! Lay on a beach, sleep, relax. I went to Fuerteventura in May and it did wonders.
  • Yoga and meditation – it calms the mind and helps prepare your body for sleep.
  • Sleep in a dark and quiet room – reduces those external stimuli.

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Any questions or topics you’d like me to cover in my Science Explained posts, then please comment below! As always, I love to hear what you have to say, your feedback really is valuable to me. It helps me to get the information out there that you like to read!

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Versatile Blogger Award

Versatile Blogger Award

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In a Science World has been given the Versatile Blogger Award!

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I was extremely surprised and flattered when I found this out whilst trying to wrap my brain around a load of statistics! Thank you so much to the awesome Sara for nominating me. It’s so humbling to know that other people are reading what I put out on my blog and social media platforms, but what’s even better is that they value the content! Receiving the acknowledgement that people appreciate my science communication efforts really does mean a lot to me. This is the first award I’ve been given for my blog, and it really does fuel my fire to carry on producing more blog posts and share my science journey. So thank you Sara, I’m very grateful!

Go and check out Sara’s wonderful Instagram and blog Neurotravels – mixing up her life as a neuroscientist and her love for exploring the world!

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What is this award?

The Versatile Blogger Award is all about bloggers sharing the love and supporting fellow bloggers. The award is given to those who have inspired them, convey passion through their blog and write with style.

So now it’s my turn to nominate two other amazing blogs, and of course I’ve focussed my attention to science blogs. Who could have guessed?!

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My nominees:

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Making it Mindful

Chrissy who is behind the “Making it Mindful” blog has recently graduated with her PhD in Pharmacy at the University of Manchester (massive congratulations!), and is a keen supporter of women in STEM. PhDs are tough, and staying mentally strong is so important. I absolutely love her blog. She discusses topics including mindfulness, wellbeing, stress, having a positive mindset and she also dishes out great advice! Not everyone talks about this side of life, but mindfulness is a topic I love to read about and taking time to be more mindful can go a long way. So thank you for your unique blog!

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Screen Shot 2017-08-23 at 22.51.34Dr. Of What

The “Dr. Of What” blog follows the journey of Bri, a second-year PhD student in conservation psychology. She has the aim of inspiring others through showcasing what it’s like to be a PhD student, something I strive to do myself. I absolutely love her “day in the life of” series. She’s posted many of these, showing her own life but also featuring what other PhD students get up to in a day. I think it’s a fantastic way of presenting life as a PhD student. It will undoubtedly give an insight into the PhD world for prospective students, and it’s interesting for current students like myself to see what other scientists get up to both in and out of the work environment!  

 

 

To fulfil my duty as a Versatile Blogger Award winner, it’s time to share 7 random facts about me:

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1. I always thought I was going to be a graphic designer

I’ve always liked science but I fell in love with art & design and graphic design at school. At A-levels I studied graphic art but I lost the love and passion for it as I soon realised I was able to get that 100% in coursework for analysing all of my creative decisions. Clearly a scientist at heart! Biology was just my fourth and final subject, a why not subject. I found it so interesting, it made me curious and here I am working towards my PhD!

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2. Science communication didn’t come on my radar until I was at the end of my lab time.

… And hence why I have no laboratory updates for you in my blog! Long story short, I came close to quitting my PhD at the start of my third year (November 2015). I had a prolonged Christmas break to think about everything. I decided to stick it out, I reflected on a lot and learn a great deal about myself. As a result, I thought my experiences could help others so hello In a Science World blog, and hello PhD SOS feature!

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3. I love CrossFit and working out

It keeps me healthy and fit, both physically and mentally. Having it to look forward to at the end of the working day helps me to focus. It’s my daily treat! It gives my brain a little rest-bite and provides me with other focusses that aren’t related to the PhD work. Highly recommend it!

 

 

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4. Chocolate has a major hold over me

I may be into fitness, and I may eat healthily most of the time… but wow do I love chocolate. It’s the only thing that would be worthwhile giving up for lent, however lent is normally over my birthday and no way am I depriving myself of chocolate birthday cake. That would be insane.

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5. I will travel as soon as this PhD is done

I’ve never had a gap year, never had time out of education. Now I’m thinking about it that’s just madness. Undergrad led straight to my Masters of Research, which led straight into PhD (unexpectedly)! I definitely feel I need to go and seek the sun and sandy beaches to refocus and unwind. Current thoughts are travelling around Thailand. Any suggestions, let me know!

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6. I aspire to go into scientific writing/communication

I’ve decided that the laboratory and academia is not for me. Once I decided that it all seemed a little daunting. However, through blogging and writing the odd article here and there for magazines, I know that science writing and communication is the right career direction. Let’s see what the future holds.

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7. I said yes!

No, not a marriage proposal! I’ve recently been asked to do something #scicomm related (which I accepted), but I’m totally 100% scared about! I guess developing as a science communicator does involve stepping out of that wonderfully nice comfort zone now and again. More details will no doubt be coming soon!

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Please go and check out the three blogs I’ve mentioned above, they’re all so inspiring! Being nominated for this award has provided me an opportunity to think about the blogs I really value, to show recognition of other amazing writers, and to share their hard work.

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I absolutely love creating content for you guys. Like what you see (and read)? Please show your support by going to the top of this page and subscribing with your email address so you don’t miss a thing!

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What is your value?

What is your value?

Anyone doing a PhD will know that no matter how hard you try, sometimes it’s difficult to get out of the PhD bubble. This bubble I speak of is something I see surrounding so many students. We work, HARD! We work long hours to get data, supervisors put pressures on us, there are time pressure and most of us are guilty of putting undue stress on ourselves. It’s easy to compare ourselves to other students who seem to have it together (statistics would suggest they don’t!) and we aren’t able to see things in perspective.

Are you too caught up in the bubble? Go get that comforting cup of coffee, relax and lets reflect on you.

My question to you – how valuable are you?

I’m guessing that probably stumped you? Self-awareness and self-reflection are so important in developing a healthy perspective, but a lot of PhD students don’t do this. This PhD SOS blog post is all about realising what skills you’ve developed during your PhD and helping you realise how valuable these make you to future employers. Take a look at the following and think about how you’ve developed since starting your science journey.

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We’re managers as well as researchers

We may be undergoing STEM research but we shouldn’t only be labelled as a scientist, engineer or mathematician. We also become managers and leaders simultaneously which is awesome. Yes, we have guidance on our PhDs but we manage our own project, both in the experimental design but also managing the finances. It’s also very common that PhD students manage other people, such as students and lab visitors. As I’m sure many of you know, this can be very challenging but a valuable skill to have. Managing others comes hand-in-hand with developing time management skills. As another factor comes into your daily or weekly routine, you’ll have to plan which experiments of your own you’ll do when but also when you’re going to teach/help others in the lab. You’ll find yourself a master of organisation and prioritisation… hopefully!

 

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Oral communication skills

Think back to a presentation you had to do for your undergrad. How well did you speak? How nervous were you? Now think back to your most recent presentation. How have you improved? Do you feel more confident when you speak in front of an audience? A PhD offers many opportunities to speak about your data to others, both to small and large audiences. This could be in regular lab meetings, a departmental seminar, at a conference, or a competition like the three-minute thesis. Even explaining your thesis to your friends and family will help generate those all important science communication skills. Being able to explain complex science in a basic language takes practice. For those that work in a more clinical setting you’ll have to adapt the way you say things between colleagues and patients. Adapting to difference audiences is a great skill, and employers love the ability to adapt. It’s translatable to being able to work with different people and in different work environments. Another great way to develop communication skills is by teaching. Have you had any teaching experience? Is there any available to you? I’ve taught students of various backgrounds and levels of education in the lab but also undergraduates in physiology practicals. Seeking out those teaching opportunities will look great on that CV!

 

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Scientific writing

We get a lot of practice in this, it’s not all about the lab work. We attend conferences but to get there we have to write abstracts. The ability to write your introduction, methods, results and discussion into about 250 words or so can be very challenging! You’ll soon learn how to write in a succinct manner, otherwise that conference abstract is going nowhere. Some events and conferences ask for lay abstracts, reinforcing that skill of adapting to different audiences when we communicate. Then of course there are the bigger documents – that monster thesis and those all important science journal papers. Regurgitating all those results into concise words and reporting your results to fit journal requirements is a good learning experience.

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Analysis and problem-solving

We pretty much become experts at problem-solving. Science doesn’t work first time every time, as sad as that is! If your PhD has been hassle-free, I am 100% jealous. We try something, we analyse it, we realise it hasn’t worked (or isn’t optimal) and we have to come up with a new solution in the hope it will fix the problem and try again (and maybe repeat!). It will test your patience but a PhD will force you to manage it for sure. When something that hasn’t been working finally does you feel like a super scientist, you get that scientist buzz and a true sense of achievement! Having to practice and develop your problem-solving ability takes a lot of brain power, persistence and therefore a skill many companies value. It isn’t as easy process and shows you’re able to target a problem through logical thinking.

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Individual and team work

Your PhD is your project, no one else’s, and therefore most of the time you are working individually. It might be isolating at times but during these periods it does allow you to focus on you alone. Now, think about those moments when you’ve worked in a team. Does your lab group have communal tasks all members have to share in order for the lab to run smoothly? Have you collaborated with anyone? Working as a team can be so much fun but it definitely has its challenges. People have different ways of working, thinking and hold different opinions. The ability to work effectively in both settings will set you in good stead for a whole range of jobs. It’s so important to self-motivate and work by yourself, but also have the personal skills to work well with others.

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Character building

Now here’s the true self-reflection. Going through the PhD process will undoubtedly teach you a lot about yourself and you’ll develop new personal skills. A PhD is not like undergrad or a masters degree where you have multiple deadlines and only a short time to focus on one thing. You’re in the PhD for the long haul, and with that brings endurance and perseverance! You’ll also find you develop resilience to a certain point and ways to handle stress. Do you handle stress effectively? If not, maybe try different ways to improve this. Top tip, exercise! The PhD is a bit of a game really, it’s going to test you mentally and physically. Of course there will be times when you’re so motivated and productive you’re on a PhD high, but you’ll also go through phases where you feel a lack of focus. Have you found ways to manage those times of reduced motivation? What do you do to turn those negative feelings around? Having self-awareness of what makes you tick and how you work best are extremely valuable skills. You’ll learn a lot about yourself, and being clever with that knowledge is key.

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In research we bring knowledge into the world for the first time. That’s amazing! We often forget about how cool what we do is. We manage projects, we create, we problem solve, we discover, we develop in ourselves. A PhD is a journey and it brings a lot of value to us personally but to other people too.

A PhD isn’t just about generating good data. Remind yourself of the skills you’ve developed, it’s those that make you valuable to employers. Put those skills to your advantage.

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What skills have you developed during your PhD or science journey so far?

As always, comment below, I love to hear from you and your experiences!

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Enhancing placental function – my first publication explained

Enhancing placental function  – my first publication explained

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Four years after my Masters of Research in Maternal and Fetal Health at The University of Manchester, our paper is finally published in Theranostics which means I have my first science journal publication! As other scientists will know, this is a very exciting moment in our science journey.

 

The title is “Placental Homing Peptide-microRNA Inhibitor Conjugates for Targeted Enhancement of Intrinsic Placental Growth Signaling”. What does that mean?! In simple terms, it’s all about targeting the placenta in order to enhance its function by delivering therapeutic molecules to it. Science journals can be very inaccessible to non-scientists but it is so important we relay our scientific findings to the public. I’m going to talk about why an earth we did this research, how we did it, our results and what they mean… and hopefully it all makes sense and you’ve learnt something new!

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The background…

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Many serious pregnancy complications such as pre-eclampsia (high blood pressure and protein present in the urine), fetal growth restriction (FGR; baby is smaller than average) and macrosomia (baby is larger than average) develop as a result of suboptimal growth and development of the placenta. The placenta is the interface between mother and baby for nutrient transfer.

These conditions can lead to preterm delivery which in turn can cause complications. Babies who are born too early have an increased risk of developing cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, but there are currently no treatments available during pregnancy. Administration of a drug via an injection in human pregnancy can cause dangerous side effects and disturbances to the fetus’ development (teratogenicity). We all take pain killers for headaches from time-to-time right? You just pop them into your mouth, and the drug circulates throughout your whole body. This means at the site of pain, the drug is more diluted but may also result in unwanted effects.

This paper is therefore all about trying to target the placenta specifically with a therapeutic to improve placental growth and development. The human placenta has two different layers: the outer syncytium, which is the site of nutrient transfer, and the underlying layer of proliferating cytotrophoblasts (CTB). These CTBs are important for growth and supporting nutritional demands of the growing fetus. These cells divide, and fuse with the syncytium.

  • Low proliferation of CTB = FGR and pre-eclampsia
  • High proliferation of CTB = macrosomia

The rate of growth/proliferation is affected by various hormones and growth factors, but also regulated by small RNA molecules called microRNAs (miRs). These regulate gene expression and consequently alter various biological processes such as cell proliferation. miR-145 and miR-675 are known to cause a reduction in placental growth, and so inhibiting these could improve placental growth in the pregnant women. But how does this get around the issue of teratogenicity? Well, our group have shown it’s possible to deliver a therapeutic molecule, which is packaged in lipids (a liposome), specifically to the placenta with minimising unwanted effects in the mother and fetus. This is done by using a specific placental homing peptide conjugate (a link of small molecules that form the foundations of proteins) which selectively binds to the placental surface. Think of it as a molecular postcode for the placenta!

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So, put two and two together and in this paper we tried to use placental homing peptides to deliver miR-145 and miR-675 inhibitors directly to the placenta with the aim to enhance placental growth.

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What did we do?

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Testing the safety of miR inhibitor delivery

Ensuring that the miR inhibitors can be used as a clinical intervention for poor placental growth and development means prior safety testing. We need to make sure that their delivery doesn’t cause detrimental effects. We exposed pregnant mice to either a short or longer-term treatment of a fluorescent-labelled non-specific inhibitor. With a fluorescence microscope we visualised the presence and localisation of it (miR inhibitor in green) within the mouse placenta. Localisation of the miR inhibitor was found in the short-term treatment and also in the longer term one too.Results2 - fluor distribution writing

The miR inhibitor was not found in fetal tissues which is great! However, we found it localised in some of the maternal tissues suggesting a possibility of off-target effects – something that would need to be investigated further. The non-specific miR inhibitor didn’t cause a change to fetal or placental weight, litter size or the present of fetal abnormalities, so this indicates that it’s tolerated well in pregnancy… phew!

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Testing specific miR inhibitors in mice

Pregnant mice were either injected with a control solution (PBS), the non-specific (scrambled) inhibitor, or the treatments miR-675 inhibitor or miR-145 inhibitor.

Placental weight:

The miR-675 inhibitor did significantly increase placental weight. However, miR-145 did not. Despite this, interestingly a statistical test confirmed that it did reduce variability in placental weight. No placentas fell below the 10th weight centile for either inhibitor, which suggests they have growth-promoting effects.

Fetal weight:

Both miR-675 and miR-145 inhibitors increased fetal weight but the non-specific inhibitor altered the fetal weight distribution as well. At the moment, we aren’t too sure why. One potential reason could be species-specific effects, but if you want to geek out, check out the discussion section of the paper (link below) where other suggestions are discussed!

Results4 - placetnal fetal weight writing

We also tested the two specific miR inhibitors for any changes in litter size and number of miscarriages. Neither had an effect therefore further suggesting that this novel treatment is safe to use in pregnant mice, another step in the right direction!

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Testing the specific inhibitors in human tissue

Placental explants, which are chunks of fresh tissue, from first trimester (early pregnancy) and term (end of pregnancy) were cultured in the miR-675 inhibitor or miR-145 inhibitor with or without the placental homing peptide added on.  Both miR-675 and miR-145 with the peptide significantly increased the placental CTB cell proliferation, but so did their equivalents without the homing peptide, which was interesting. This enhanced cell proliferation was only found in first trimester placental samples.

Results5 - human prolif writing

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Summary

Without getting bogged down in all the intense sciencey discussion of this data (again, feel free to view the link for the actual paper below if you would like to read some more), what can we conclude from this study?

  • We provide evidence that the use of these homing peptides have a favourable therapeutic profile during pregnancy – they appear safe to use!
  • It’s the first piece of evidence for targeted delivery of a miR inhibitor to the placenta.
  • A homing peptide-miRNA inhibitor can be used to increase human placental growth in early pregnancy, which means it should be possible to manipulate the expression of those pesky placental miRs which contribute to pre-eclampsia and FGR.
  • This study suggests that these novel therapeutics may provide a new strategy for targeted treatment of compromised placental development and function.

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Of course further research is required to push the therapeutic potential of placental homing peptide-microRNA inhibitors further in the hope they will enter clinical trials in the future, but this study provides some really interesting data. Watch this space!

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You can find the original paper here!

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This was a much more science-heavy blog post than I normally write. Would you like more science explained posts?

Please comment below as always to let me know what you thought. Your feedback really is valuable to me. It helps me to grow as a science blogger and get the information out there that you like to read!

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Being a publicist – my Pint of Science experience

Being a publicist – my Pint of Science experience

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This post is coming a couple months late but it’s allowed me time to reflect on my experiences of an exciting project I was part of this year. In January 2017 I was given the opportunity to be involved in the amazing science festival “Pint of Science” as publicist for the Southampton events running 15-17th May.

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This was a totally new experience for me! Since starting my degree I’ve completed a masters and now I’m in my final year of PhD, and after all the time in the lab I’ve decided that academia isn’t a career route I’d like to pursue. In all honesty, coming to that realisation is a little scary as on paper that’s what I’m trained to do. So it was time to explore other options and get a feel of what else is out there, so hello science blog, and through that I’ve been given the opportunity to write for magazines. Science communication is now a route I’d like to test out (we’ll see where it takes me), and being publicist for PoS’17 was another side of science communication to have a play with! Life is all about testing out new things, figuring out what you like, what you don’t and eventually your experiences will guide you to great things. Well I believe that anyway.

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For those that don’t know, what is Pint of Science?

Pint of Science is a science festival that happens yearly across cities in the UK and has now expanded to numerous countries across the world. The concept is simple – scientists take to the stage at local pubs to deliver unique talks, demonstrations and live experiments with fun science-related activities and comedy sets in-between talks. It’s all about reaching out to the public and sharing the amazing research that happens behind those university doors. In one city there are 6x teams of volunteers all with their specific theme (Atoms to Galaxies, Beautiful Mind, Planet Earth, Our Society, Tech Me Out and Our Body), and each team hosts their three nights in a pub. What better way to learn some science than with some food and a drink or two?!

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My experience of being a publicist

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#1 – Create and promote

Generating promotional materials was a key part of my job role. Posters, flyers and business cards were designed, printed and distributed to our six teams and displayed all across Southampton. It’s a little more creative than my usual PhD work so a bit of Photoshop and a little less of the spreadsheets from time-to-time was a nice change!

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#2 – Camera, lights, action!

I developed a press release for our Southampton events, and with the University of Southampton’s media relations manager Charles Elder, I liaised with local media companies including a local TV station, radio and newspapers to set up a media launch event at Mettricks (love this place!).  This was a lot of fun and very rewarding, but wow it opened my eyes up to the fast paced, last-minute style of work the media world has! A little stressful but it all went to plan.

The morning was a massive success. My fellow publicist Sophie (at Soph Talks Science), three of our PoS Southampton researchers/speakers (Dr Nick Evans, Emma Osborne and Dr Becks Spake) and myself were all interviewed about the event, which was a fun experience in itself! The pressure was on not to stumble! You can watch the That’s Solent TV interview here and listen to the Radio Solent clip here!

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#3 – Upping my social media game

The final week before the event was all about social media and upping my Twitter game (also trying to actually figure out Twitter!). The Southampton PoS publicity team did an amazing job if I do say so myself! Team Southampton sold 970 tickets with 16 out of 18 events selling out. A Southampton record!

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#4 – Event nights!

After all the madness it was time to attend events, have fun and share what PoS’17 Southampton had going on with you guys via Instagram and Twitter! Here are some snippets of the event nights…

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Getting the chance to experience being a publicist was great. I’ve gained so many new skills and learnt so much. To be honest with you, I thought it wouldn’t take up much time. At the start we had an easy ride where all the six teams were planning their event nights, but one month from the festival and wow it was crazy busy. PhD-ing whilst doing publicity on the side was not easy and my time management skills were put to the test even more! I’m so thankful for having this opportunity and to anyone who is thinking about science communication as a potential career path, give this a go next year at PoS’18! I met some great people, learnt new science, had so much fun and would do it all over again.

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What experiences have you had of science communication? Any other PoS publicists from different cities out there? Comment below, I’d love to hear from you!

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