Healthy foundations: Getting those Zzzs

Healthy foundations: Getting those Zzzs

A lot of people I know (including myself) are mindful about maintaining a healthy lifestyle. What’s been amazing is that quite a few of my followers have asked me to do some blog posts on this, how perfect! So here you are, the first in my mini series “Healthy foundations” which I’m really excited about!

Today’s topic is something we all love – SLEEP!

There are many factors important in promoting good health including hydration, nutrition and exercise. But getting optimal sleep is vital for that all important brain power. It will encourage a more positive mindset for the day which will naturally make you more motivated, focused and productive. So, are you getting enough sleep? Are you functioning optimally?

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Why is sleep so important?

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Sleep is one of the foundations for good health. It’s actually a necessity for us to live. We hear a lot about how sleep affects our wellbeing but here’s a fun fact for you – sleep is still a mystery to scientists! There’s a lot we don’t know. However, we do know that a lack of it affects many biological processes.

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“There is no tissue within the body and no process within the brain that is not enhanced by sleep, or demonstrably impaired when you don’t get enough”

– Matt Walker, Center for Human Sleep Science, Uni of California.

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Research suggests that good quality sleep is associated with:

  • Memory consolidation – strengthens neural connections & reduces unwanted ones.
  • Repair and growth – sleep is healing time! It’s when our bodies reset.
  • Emotional stability – deprivation is associated with depression.
  • Decision making – organises information and switches off the stress response.

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Image credit: Tatiana Shepeleva – Shutterstock

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What about the impact of not getting enough sleep?

Well it definitely has a negative effect on our health, that’s for sure! It’s known to increase inflammation and impair our immune system and appetite. This leads to conditions such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, heart disease and autoimmune disorders. Sleep deprivation has also been linked to mental health disorders such as depression, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, as well as increasing the risk of neurological conditions such as Alzheimer’s. Toxins, like those associated with Alzheimer’s, are cleared during sleep.

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So, what determines our sleep?

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There are two main factors…

 

Circadian clock

Our bodies have an internal “clock” in the brain which is regulated by our 24-hour biological clock, known as the circadian rhythm. It relies on light, so daylight and darkness determine when we should be awake and when we should be asleep. During the day, light detected by the retina in the back of the eye sends signals to a region in the brain called the SCN (suprachiasmatic nucleus) within the hypothalamus. From here, signals lead to reduced melatonin levels (which when raised initiates the desire to sleep), increased body temperature and an increase in hormones such as the stress hormone cortisol.

Sleep pressure

The longer you’re awake, the more your body is shouting out for you to sleep. A molecule called adenosine increases in the brain throughout the day, which sends signals that make us want to sleep. When we sleep, that sleep pressure is taken off.

 

Image credit: Medscape
Image credit: Medscape

 

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What is the right amount?

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Everyone is different and the optimal amount of sleep varies from person to person. Our genes, age and lifestyle all affect our requirement. But as adults, scientists say that the optimal amount is 7-9 hours.

Warning! More sleep doesn’t always mean you’re better off! Too much of anything can be a bad thing. Some people think they function fine on less than the 7 hours sleep. Yes, some people are able to cope with fewer hours, but they might just be used to the effects of sleep deprivation without realising it! 

Sleep
Image credit: Mindful

A research group looking at students sleeping for only 4 hours on 6 consecutive nights found that the they developed increased blood pressure, levels of that stress hormone cortisol, and an increased insulin resistance, which affects the body’s glucose handling. So chronic sleep deprivation is not doing you any favours!

Those of you who are sleep deprived, I do bring you some good news! This group found that temporary sleep deprivation could be reversed with adequate sleep. Those moments of joy we call ‘naps’ can help to repay this sleep debt but it’s not ideal. Get that good quality 7 hours in to begin with.

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Top tips for better sleep:

  • Don’t use your phone before bed! – I know it’s tempting but blue light (which our phones and laptops emit) stimulate that internal clock I was telling you about. It effectively tricks your brain into thinking it’s daytime, making it harder to sleep. Put a blue filter on, like “f.lux” if you are going to use it.
  • Reduce caffeine intake before bed – caffeine blocks those adenosine receptors in the brain so the desire to sleep will be severely reduced.
  • Be more mindful – be aware of how much of that Zzzz you are getting and how much more you need to get that 7 hours minimum. Having alerts on your phone telling you to get ready for bed will help!
  • Holidays – if you’re in a really bad pattern of consistent sleep deprivation, a holiday will reset you! Lay on a beach, sleep, relax. I went to Fuerteventura in May and it did wonders.
  • Yoga and meditation – it calms the mind and helps prepare your body for sleep.
  • Sleep in a dark and quiet room – reduces those external stimuli.

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Any questions or topics you’d like me to cover in my Science Explained posts, then please comment below! As always, I love to hear what you have to say, your feedback really is valuable to me. It helps me to get the information out there that you like to read!

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