Thesis writing: Preparing in advance

Thesis writing: Preparing in advance

It’s time to talk thesis writing, a topic I know a lot of my followers are waiting to see pop up on my blog! For for those that don’t follow my science journey, I’ve submitted my thesis and my PhD viva/defence is next week! Throughout the process of writing my thesis I noted down bits of advice I thought would be worth sharing – a combination of things that really helped me and things I wish I had done in hindsight.

Of course, every PhD is different and our experiences are all going to vary hugely. However, there are definitely some golden nuggets of advice which will hopefully help everyone out.

There is SO much information I want to discuss so I’ve decided to break in down in to a series of posts. So let’s start from the beginning. Here are some tips for how to prep for thesis life when it’s not the sole focus and you’re still in the laboratory/generating data.

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My top 10 thesis prep tips:

 

1. Plan ahead. When do you want the research component finished? When will you start to focus primarily on your writing? When will you have a first draft completed by? Set these deadlines earlier than you’d like. Everyone I know has said the process takes longer than you expect, me included.

2. Prioritise. To achieve the above, prioritise! Make a plan for the rest of your laboratory/pre-writing work. Discuss with your supervisor the list of priorities… 1) What is necessary for you to pass your PhD. 2) What would be nice additions if you have the time. 3) Extra work which would be an additional bonus for your thesis, it’s not vital and could be a project for a student.

3. Make a thesis outline plan. Get a plan together of chapters and headings so you can start to think about the thesis flow. Arrange a meeting with your supervisor(s) to talk about this so you know you’re on the right track. Once you have that flow you’ll have a clearer idea of how your thesis will shape up, exciting!

4. Familiarise yourself with thesis guidelines. Check your university’s thesis guidelines and apply this to your outline plan. Most likely there will be specific margin requirements, font size, line spacing, order of content etc that your thesis has to be inline with. Check if it’s required to be bound double or single sided (if double you need mirrored margins to account for the binding edge. Having a play with this and getting it all set up when you have a spare hour here and there prior to writing will save you a lot of time formatting in the long run..

5. Make graphs as you go. Graphs tend to be more time consuming to make than you think! If you have a spare 30 mins in between experiments and you have data to plot, graph them! Arrange them into a layout so they’re good to go into the thesis. I use GraphPad Prism to make my graphs, a really user-friendly bit of software.

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6. Little bit of reading each week. Even if it’s just one afternoon a week, try to set time aside to stay on top of the literature. It keeps you in the loop with current research. Some people say you should read every day. Well, from my experience that was totally unrealistic. In fact, squeezing in reading every week was tough due to the nature of my experiments. A lot of my reading was done during the thesis write-up. Not ideal, but hey!

7. Note down all the details. Make sure any protocols and methodologies you use throughout your PhD are written in detail (including manufacturer/product details). It’s the little details that can be forgotten so quickly! When I came to writing up about the animal model I set up, there were so many steps and considerations that I had forgotten when it came round to writing the methods section… so thank goodness I’m thorough and all those details were already in a document. A lot of time information searching saved.

8. Utilise the positives of social media. A PhD isn’t like an undergrad or a masters where everyone in your cohort has the same exams and the same deadlines. Thesis life can be a little isolating in that respect. If you’re on social media utilise it for your needs! Follow and interact with other people in the same position as you. It can be a good source of support, Instagram was great for that!

9. Look at previous theses. Ask your supervisors, colleagues and friends to look at previous theses. They will give you an idea of what you’re going to be embarking on.

10. Remember the lab work/thesis is never a finished product. There’s always more experiments which could be done and different ways to analyse the data. You have to draw a line under the work at some point in order to get that thesis written, submitted and be awarded the title Dr.!

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Medic, researcher and blogger – Dr. Farah

Medic, researcher and blogger – Dr. Farah

It’s time for another Scientist Showcase and I’d like to welcome you to the wonderful Dr Farah! Farah is a medical doctor specialising in Infectious Diseases and Microbiology whilst also doing an academic research component investigating the effect of antibiotics on the gut microbiome and human breath. I love learning more about what she gets up to in the clinic and in the lab over on her Instagram! Farah is a self-taught belly dancer (incredible!) and a lover of tea, travelling and reading! Over to you Farah…

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Tell us more about the scientific research!

We’re doing a pilot study looking at how the route we administer antibiotics (through a drip or via tablets) impacts on the community of organisms/bugs (microbiome) that live naturally in the human gut. This is a big topic in research at the moment as we’re learning that while we live in harmony most of the time with this microbiome, it can affect our health, our brains and even how we think! Importantly, changes in this gut microbiome can lead to the development of antibiotic resistance. If we can reduce effects on the microbiome, then we can potentially reduce antibiotic resistance. A lady in the US recently died because the infection she had was resistant to all our antibiotics. This should be one of our biggest fears- the antibiotic apocalypse!!

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What inspired you to go into medicine? And what inspired you to add research into the mix?

In all honestly, I wasn’t sure what to do in life (is anyone?!). I’ve been lucky in that I’ve managed to end up doing something I really love but that was honestly touch-and-go for a while. I wasn’t doing brilliantly in my AS levels and aiming for medicine helped me to achieve my grades. When I got into medical school, I found that I enjoyed the subject and I got better and better at it over time. I’m also a people person and enjoy the mix of skills, teamwork and the general variety within medicine. I was introduced to research during my undergrad- I did an extra degree for a year in International Health and conducted research in Ethiopia. I decided I wanted to be able to spend a bit of concentrated time on research, so here I am!

“I’m just proud of what I’m doing and have done, and happy with where I am in life.”

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How do you find balancing being a doctor and doing research? That’s a big job!

The NIHR-funded Academic Clinical Fellowship is great in that it allows for dedicated time to focus on research that is protected from clinical time. However, it is really tough pursuing both simultaneously and so I am having to balance that mix a little. I do it by trying to plan ahead, by listening to my body when it’s tired and by cutting myself slack when I’m not “achieving” the way I want to be. I find giving myself deadlines that I tell other people is also a big help. Also, I LOVE my Filofax. Writing things down physically and giving myself tick lists is the only way I focus my mind. I review and rewrite it every Sunday and during the week I work through it. I make that list short though. No more than 3 or 4 things to do. Never set yourself up for a fall!

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What advice would you give to those considering/currently combining medicine and research?

Do not say yes to everything. You have to learn to say no sometimes.

BUT be brave enough to say yes to open up opportunities for yourself!

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I learn so much from your science IG! What led to the decision to document your medical/science journey on social media and blog?

I’m not 100% sure how it happened. I think it started as a way of cementing my own learning. I’m a very visual learner so Instagram was an ideal platform. The blog came about because I had more things to say than I realised! Also, in thinking about doing a PhD, I noticed that funders like you to share your research and science, so I realised it wouldn’t just be seen as ‘time-wasting’ either. Scicomm is a skill (and a very difficult one to master) so every little helps. I became increasingly enthusiastic and I found the community a fun and supportive one too.

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Why is science communication important to you?

Lots of reasons, I think. It’s about showing the world why you’re passionate about your job and inspiring people to consider your career too. The thing with science communication is it breaks these ridiculous myths that science isn’t cool or that you have to be completely boring to do it. I want kids to be excited by schooling. I work with a charity called Students for Kids International Projects (SKIP) and when I was at uni we went to Zambia. The kids we worked with LOVED going to school- they saw it as fun, as an opportunity. I think finding learning fun is actually very natural for humans but it’s not always taught in the most engaging way. That’s because it’s difficult to do! Taking part in scicomm activities is challenging for me but it’s important in enthusing younger generations and showing them different possibilities for themselves.

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Finally, how do you balance work/scicomm and personal life?

I’ve been a bit poor at this for the last year or so, I’ve enjoyed my job so much and the balance hasn’t been great. Outside of work I used to go to Lindy Hop classes and my husband and I danced at our wedding in Lindy style! At the moment I mostly try to keep up with friends, relax in the evening to keep my sleep hygiene in tact and do exercise. Exercise used to be belly dancing around my room but now consists of BBG, walking and running. I also like reading and that for me is the best way to keep up with my Spanish language learning, in fact I’m reading Harry Potter in Spanish!

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Thank you Farah for being a guest on the blog! To learn more about her journey as a clinician and a researcher you can find Farah on Instagram and Twitter. Also, go and check out her blog!

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#WearingWhite: Cancer immunotherapy

#WearingWhite: Cancer immunotherapy

This Sunday is World Cancer Day. Staff here at the University of Southampton have been wearing white in order to raise awareness of the life-saving research being performed behind the laboratory doors. In fact, today the University of Southampton are celebrating hitting the £25m target for the UK’s first dedicated Centre for Cancer Immunology!

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Why white?!

We have a lot of different cells in our body, in fact there’s thought to be approximately 200 different types of cells, but today I’m talking about our white blood cells. White bloods cells are the superhero cells, their role is to protect us from infection, disease and foreign invaders to keep us healthy. Here in Southampton, these white blood cells are being used in laboratory research to develop new therapies to fight cancer. The research is being applied into the clinic, and results from clinical trials is showing a lot of promise!

Wearing White

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We are the cure

Immunology is a pretty complex field, and so I’m not going to go into the details (you’d be sat here reading for hours trying to get a grip on a lot of different molecules), but basically, researchers have found that our immune system could actually be used to cure cancer. That’s pretty neat right?!

A type of treatment called immunotherapy harnesses the power of the body’s immune system to recognise and destroy cancer cells (see video below). Cancer cells have the ability to switch off or confuse our killer T cells which then enable the cancer cells to grow. Cancer cells are very hard to defeat! Immunotherapy switches these killer T cells back on and so those useful killer T cells become back in action. They are then able to detect the invasive cancer cells (and potentially any hidden cancer cells!) and destroy them, providing long lasting action to protect against cancer growth. There are different types of immunotherapy including the use of monoclonal antibodies, vaccines, cytokines and adoptive cell transfer and you can read more about these here! They’re all about enhancing the ability of the T cells to recognise the cancer cells. Immunotherapy has the potential to provide us with a lifetime immunity to cancer.

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Successes

Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, but the results from cancer immunology clinical trials suggest great hope for controlling and curing most cancers.

Immunotherapy clinical trial patients in Southampton:

  • As many as half of the patients with difficult and terminal cancers (often just given months to live) are showing dramatic improvements.
  • 20% patients are cancer free.
  • Drugs for advanced and terminal cancers, such as lung, skin (melanoma), blood (lymphoma), head and neck cancers and childhood cancer (neuroblastoma) are showing outstanding results.

“The cure for Cancer? You’re it.”

– University of Southampton

To read the stories of patients, researchers, fundraisers and donors click here and scroll down the page.

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For extra info click the following links: Cancer Research UK & Cancer Research Institute.

If you are interested in taking part in an immunotherapy clinical trial please contact your GP or cancer specialist.

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If you want to learn some more interesting science then check out my previous science blog posts here.

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Science, scicomm and vlogging – Martijn Peters

Science, scicomm and vlogging – Martijn Peters

I’m very excited about the first Scientist Showcase of 2018! I’d like to welcome you to Martijn Peters, a scientist and very talented science communicator living in the land of beer, chocolate and French fries – Belgium! Over to you Martijn…

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So, why science?!

The origin of my spark for science can be traced back all the way to my early childhood. My grandfather took me on many hiking trips and explained everything he knew about nature. As a consequence, I developed an intrinsic need for wanting to understand everything that occurred around me. This eventually resulted in me studying the awesome science field that is Biomedical Sciences at university, I then specialized in Bioelectronics & Nanotechnology for my Master’s degree, and recently completed my PhD.  

“The human body is one of the most amazing accomplishments of nature and I really wanted to learn how it works and interacts with its environment.”

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Congratulations on getting your PhD just before Christmas! Tell us about your research!

Thank you! My PhD research revolves around a specific aspect of our brain. Our brain is one of our most precious treasures, one that requires protection at all costs. Therefore, nature safeguards it behind an impenetrable wall, called the blood-brain-barrier. This fortress keeps foreign invaders, like diseases, out but also makes it very hard for us researchers to investigate the brain when something goes wrong. As a results, to this day the working mechanisms of many brain diseases are still shrouded in mystery.

During my PhD I designed novel visualization probes that enable us to study the brain and diseases that wreak havoc upon it. These visualization probes are nanoparticles, small spheres one million time smaller than the width of a human hair, that consist of semiconducting polymers. Most people know these polymers from applications like solar panels or OLEDs that reside inside your smartphones and TVs, but they are also fluorescent and non-toxic. I covered the nanoparticles with special structures, which ensure that they will target specific cells, like a guided missile system. On top of that, they are small enough to cross the daunting blood-brain-barrier! This type of novel visualization probe will help us shine a new light on brain diseases like Alzheimer’s, Multiple Sclerosis and Parkinson’s.

Martijn - PhD defence

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For other current/soon-to-be PhD students, what are your dos and don’ts?!

Persistence is the key! If you’re persist you will get there.

However, don’t lose yourself in the process and don’t focus too much on the accomplishments of others. It can be quite stressful working in an environment that consists of nothing but top students. You often wonder if you are good enough. But rest assured, you are. You are also one of those students. You can do it! So work hard for your passion but also don’t forget to take a break now and then. You need and deserve them!

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Why is science communication important to you?

To me, science communication is important because it is all about building bridges. We often forget that we are the expert in our own research topic, and everyone else (even fellow scientists) are a lay audience.

“Learning how to communicate will not only help society but also science. A good scientist is a good communicator.”

Throughout my PhD I discovered that I could combine my creative side with my technical side through science communication, which has been an eye-opening experience for me. I am rather proud of my science communication achievements (especially since I managed to achieve them without losing any quality in my science work) and it has become a passion for me.

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So you’re an award-winning science communicator? Tell us about OMGitsScience!

OMGitsScience is a project that I started to show the human side of science. Too often we just shower people with nothing but facts. Yet we do not provide them with insights into who we are or how science works. Because these aspects are missing, people have a hard time making a connection of trust with scientists and distinguishing between “science facts” and “fake facts”. To counter this movement, I started communicating science on Twitter and a YouTube channel called OMGitsScience on which I show the life of a scientist through vlogging. I’ve also embarked on an Instagram journey recently (I really love editing pics and combining them with a story).

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Check out this fun vlog which showcases a day in the life of Martijn! Enjoy!

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Finally, how do you balance work and personal life?

I think a healthy work-life balance differs for everyone. Some weeks were really hectic during my PhD with zero free time during the day, and some weeks were rather “chill” with lots of time to do things not revolving around my PhD. You have to listen to you own body and discover what works best for you. I have used most of my free time for science communication projects (from speaking assignments to competitions to organizing a TEDx conference to starting a YouTube channel). I love being creative and it gives me an outlet to combine science with creativity. I also really enjoy reading, watching series/movies and running.

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Thank you to Martijn for being part of my blog! I absolutely love to hear about the lives of others. He’s a brilliant science communicator so please go and follow him on Instagram, Twitter, Facebook and of course him awesome YouTube channel!

 

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Standing up for Science

Standing up for Science

It is so important that scientific research is carried out in a sound way, that it is communicated to the media clearly and effectively, and that it’s reported by the media accurately. It doesn’t always happen! From time-to-time ‘fake news’ circulates, and that’s not good. Yesterday I attended the Voice of Young Science “Standing up for Science” workshop hosted by the Royal Pharmaceutical Society. It was absolutely brilliant!

Science communication is extremely important. As science is government-funded I feel that it’s only right we give back to society through engaging the public with research by communicating the intricacies in a digestible format for anyone to understand. Communicating our science effectively builds trust between the public and researchers, plus who doesn’t love to learn something new?!

As an aspiring science communicator, standing up for science and dealing with the media, journalists and ‘fake news’ could be of great relevance.  The idea of speaking about research to the media can seem daunting. What happens if you say something foolish and it will stick with you forever?! Well, the workshop provided us with the opportunity to meet scientists who’ve engaged with the media, as well as hearing from the journalists themselves about how the media works and what they want from scientists.

Here’s my summary of the day and what I learnt from the workshop.

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Session 1: Science and the media

Each panellists retold stories of their experiences with dealing with the media which were fascinating. We heard about the positives and the negatives and they dished out some useful tips.

Panel 1
Photo: Voice of Young Science

Panellists:

Prof. Johnathan Napier: leading pioneer in plant biotechnology and GM field trials at Rothamsted Research.

“What’s the point in doing the science if you aren’t going to tell anyone about it?”

Dr Helen O’Neil: molecular geneticist working in embryology and IVF at the Institute for Women’s Health, UCL.

If you don’t know the answer, you can turn it around and say your key message in a different way – “it’s a second chance of getting the message across.”

Nataliya Tkachenko: PhD student at the Warwick Institute for the Science of Cities.

“Remember, it is your interview so it is your choice what information you give out.”

Take-home messages:

  • It’s better to get media training in advance.
  • The media will take you word-for-word.
  • Certain words have a bad reputation (e.g. designer babies), so be wary!
  • Ask for the questions before the interview – but it’s not guaranteed they’ll ask those and only those! Anything can happen with the media.
  • If it’s a pre-recorded interview or a written article, ask to hear/read the final version before it’s sent out.
  • Think about the message you want to get across. Your mind will go blank so remember the overall message. You have the power to turn the conversation back round.
  • A lot of news is online so if there are any inaccuracies you can ask for them to be changed.
  • Go to science festivals, and any opportunities to engage with the public is great experience.

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Session 2: What journalists are looking for

The two panellists both spoke about how they work as a journalist, what their typical work day looks like and what they expect from scientists. The media can get a bad reputation, but it was nice to see that scientists and journalists have not-so-dissimilar perspectives.

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Photo: Voice of Young Science

Panellists:

Jane Symons: freelance health writer and contributor to national newspapers. Dislikes nutritional nonsense and debunked homeopathy.

“Journalism is high stress but you get instant gratification.”

Oliver Moody: science correspondent at The Times.

“Journalists do go out of their way to get a well-rounded story.”

Take-home messages:

  • Journalists have tight time deadlines – 4-5 stories a day and writing might not start until the afternoon.
  • Clarity and simple explanations is vital – journalists are not always from a science background and so they can misinterpret, but it’s not intentional!
  • The story has to be entertaining – journalists are there to engage the reader.
  • Scientists can be just as guilty at ‘over-egging’ a story as journalists are.
  • It is okay to ask to check quotes before print.
  • Scientists and journalists work to different time frames. If you want to engage with the media, respond quickly! Knowing you respond quickly means it’s more likely they’ll contact you again.
  • Talk with your institute’s press office before speaking to the media. They’re there to help.
  • Journalism is very competitive, it is not always a collaborative field

 

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Session 3: Standing up for Science – the nut and bolts

This session was all about us being able to get practical guidance in getting our voices heard in debates about science and evidence. We learnt about how to respond to bad science if we see it, and top tips when coming face-to-face with a journalist.

Panellists:

Hilary Jones – senior press officer at the Medical Research Council.

“Speak to your press officer about any bad experiences.”

Leah Fitzsimmons – postdoctoral researcher at the University of Birmingham. Very proactive public engagement volunteer.

“There’s a risk of controversial issues being misinterpreted by media and public but we need the scientific voice in those debates most of all.”

Martin Smith – specialist for the House of Commons Science and Technology.

“Scientists should be active in making policy decisions. If you don’t, someone else will.”

  • Tell your institute’s press office about your paper when it’s just been accepted – don’t have to wait until publication.
  • Send the press office an image or video to go with the paper, they help to promote it!
  • Provide nice quotes. Again, helps the press office in producing a good press release.
  • Don’t have to be a public engagement specialist – small bits of training add up.
  • Be clear on what you want to communicate.
  • Practice communicating science through university magazines and blogs!
  • Get involved in social media. Check whether your institute has a social media policy.
  • If you go to the committee about a science issue, they’ll talk you through it and strive for a positive experience.
  • All scientists can be involved in committee meetings and what policy issues should be looked into.
  • Start in a ‘safe’ place. Sense about Science and their ‘Ask for evidence’ campaign is a great place to go.
  • Be an ambassador of the thing you love!

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The workshop was incredibly inspiring and thought-provoking. There was definitely a lot of information to take away from the day, and I highly encourage any other early career researchers/scientists to attend this workshop!

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To top the whole day off we attended the 2017 John Maddox Prize ceremony, an award given to a scientist who has promoted sound science and evidence on a matter of public interest with perseverance and courage. Dr Riko Muranaka won the award for her efforts in countering HPV vaccine misinformation. A truly inspiring talk. You can read more about why she won the prize here.

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Disease can originate from early development?!

Disease can originate from early development?!

Last week’s blog post was all about the #uosIDS 10 year celebrations here at the Institute of Developmental Sciences. We’re also the home of DOHaD (Developmental Origins of Health and Disease). But what is this? What is this hypothesis that forms the basis to the majority of research here? Well, I’ll enlighten you with some science!

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It’s well known that ‘bad genes’ and poor lifestyle choices affect our health and wellbeing in adulthood. But is it that simple? Is that all that determines our health? Professor David Barker, a Southampton based clinical epidemiologist, challenged these traditional ideas. In 1990 he proposed that poor nutrition in the womb resulted in common chronic diseases and ‘The Barker Hypothesis’ was born, which is now known as the ‘DOHaD Hypothesis’. He suggested that the environment during fetal and early life is what ‘programmes’ our health and risk of disease from infancy to adulthood. It is thought that the fetus adapts to the nutrient supply available during pregnancy. Some will have to adapt to a more restricted supply, which is associated with an increased risk of chronic diseases.

Pregnancy health
Early life health. Photo: Pexels

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The science behind the hypothesis

UK lower socioeconomic areas – infant mortality rates in the early 20th century correlated with cardiovascular deaths 60-70 years later.

The Hertfordshire Study – Barker revealed that low birth weight (indicator of poor maternal environment) was associated with higher blood pressure, increased death by coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes and osteoporosis.

Helsinki, India and Amsterdam – studies revealed similar relationships between maternal nutrition/childhood growth and chronic disease.

The Dutch Winter Famine (1944-1945) – people including pregnant women were restricted to only 400–800 calories per day. Famine during early pregnancy lead to larger and heavier babies with an increased risk of coronary heart disease in adulthood. However, exposure during mid-late pregnancy resulted in babies with reduced birth weight, a reduced ability to handle blood glucose levels and risk of type 2 diabetes.

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Over the past 25 years a wealth of research (both human and animal studies) has contributed to Barker’s theory. Effects of maternal stress, obesity and hypoxia (low oxygen) during pregnancy on offspring health are a few conditions being researched today. Research is still on going in Southampton as a result of Barker’s work. The Princess Ann Cohort and the Southampton Women’s Survey found a correlation between low maternal vitamin D levels and lower childhood bone mass and grip strength, respectively. These results have lead to interventional trials involving vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy.

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Human beings are like motor cars. They break down either because they are being driven on rough roads or because they were badly made in the first place. Rolls-Royce cars do not break down no matter where they are being driven. How do we build stronger people? By improving the nutrition of babies in the womb. The greatest gift we could give the next generation is to improve the nutrition and growth of girls and young women

Prof. David Barker

The power of epigenetics

For years scientists have studied single genes and how alterations in them affect our health status. Recent research suggests that there are factors (epigenetic factors) which in turn alter the function of these genes. Some epigenetic markers have been associated with the natural ageing process and some have been associated with diseases such as cancer and diabetes.

So what are epigenetic factors? Epigenetic changes modify our DNA, causing some genes to be switched on or off, and consequently causing more or less of the corresponding protein to be produced. Environmental factors such as undernutrition, overnutrition, stress and inflammation can alter our epigenetics. We know these factors experienced by the mother can lead to an increased risk of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases for the child in later life. Epigenetic changes in critical developmental time frames are thought to cause long term effects and consequently increased susceptibility to disease throughout the life course.

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Human placenta. Turquoise= trophoblast (placental) cells, purple= connective tissue, pink= fetal blood vessels. Photo: Placenta Lab and Biomedical Imaging Unit, University of Southampton.

The placenta is the interface between mother and baby, and the source of all the baby’s nutrients during pregnancy. Transfer of amino acids (the building blocks of protein) via amino acid transporters are vital for fetal growth. A suboptimal placenta can therefore cause problems for the baby in later life. Research here at the IDS is currently investigating how epigenetic changes impact the placenta and these amino acid transporters. Studies are also looking into the epigenetic modifications leading to changes in gene expression associated with the risk of obesity and metabolic disease in later life, which is very relevant to our current population.

 

The hypothesis can lead to good things!…

The DOHaD hypothesis has lead to a huge amount of research over the years exploring the reasons for and why conditions during pregnancy affect the long term health of the child. This understanding which is constantly growing can have a huge positive impact…

  • shift the focus of public health interventions – should not just be focusing on the health during childhood and adulthood, but also during pregnancy.
  • opportunity to reassess education, availability of health services and professional training.
  • Enhance education in the importance of nutrition, exercise and emotional health.
  • Enhanced support for the mother during pregnancy. Stress and emotional struggles can have a serious knock to maternal wellbeing and result in severe consequences to offspring health.
  • Research focusses – researching genetic predisposition and epigenetic monitoring would enhance our ability to target chronic diseases more effectively in the future.

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Additional nutritional intervention studies are vital in order to further our understanding of chronic disease risk factors and the epigenetics which play a role in exacerbating these health complications.

David Barker and his hypothesis have really made scientists change their way of thinking. It has lead to ground breaking science and provides a foundation to improve public health services in order to enhance the health and wellbeing of future generations.

… And of course it’s formed the basis for my very own PhD research.

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Fancy reading a little more on this? Click here.

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#uosIDS: 10 years of developing healthy lives

#uosIDS: 10 years of developing healthy lives

A week has passed since we celebrated 10 years of developing healthy lives here at the Institute of Developmental Sciences (IDS), Southampton, UK.

I’ve been doing a science communication internship alongside PhD the past few months which was in the lead up to this event. My main role has been to increase the awareness of the IDS and the research that goes on behind our pod doors. I filmed interviews with various IDS academics, edited the footage and shared via our social media channels. I was involved in the main event too on the 8th November 2017 which was an absolute highlight… I had the amazing opportunity of interviewing a few special people!

 

“fundamental research into the processes by which the environment of the developing embryo, fetus and child lays the foundations for health and chronic disease risk across the life course”

– Prof. Mark Hanson, Director of IDS

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Part 1: Celebrating 10 years of IDS research and the future.

The IDS is split into different research themes which formed the basis of the day event. I could go into so much awesome sciencey goodness for you but instead I thought I’d share some #uosIDS tweets from a few of us. What better way to give you short sharp fun snippets of science?!

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Developmental physiology and medicine

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Nutrition and metabolism

nutrition3nutrition4

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Genomics

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Epigenomics

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Regenerative medicine

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“If you can’t explain the research you do down the pub then you’re missing a trick” #uosIDS

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Part 2: “Building Superhumans?” – Debating the ethics of altering development

Okay so this was BRILLIANT! In the evening we had our very own Question Time style debate. We were fortunate enough to have a fantastic panel to answer the audience’s very thought-provoking questions.

The panel

Chair: Lord Prof Robert Winston (middle)

Panellists: Dr Adam Rutherford (science writer and broadcaster), Jamie Raftery (The Holistic Chef and healthier diet advocate), Shelley Rudman (Olympian and fitness trainer), Prof. Neena Modi (medical researcher and President of the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health).

So how did this work? College/A-level students submitted their questions they wanted to ask the panel about altering human development and here’s what was picked out!

1. What are the panel’s ideas of a superhuman?

2. Do you think anyone given enough training can become an Olympian?

These two questions led onto the discussion between nature vs. nurture (genes vs. environment), and that both are pretty important. With regards to question no.2, Shelley Rudman highlighted that to be a successful athlete it’s not 100% about your physical condition, but training your ‘frame of mind’ is also vital.

3. We all need a ‘healthy diet’ but how do we determine what ‘healthy’ means for an individual person?

The panel agreed that a balanced diet is key. An interesting point Jamie Raftery mentioned was something we discussed in an interview beforehand,  that a diet which works for one person doesn’t necessarily work for another. We’re all different and so we need to work out our own balanced diet. Personalised diet is a form of personalised medicine, pretty cool concept right?! Dr Adam Rutherford raised the fact that according to scientific data, diets don’t work. Fad diets actually end up leading to weight gain! Prof. Neena Modi said we should give our children a whole range of foods, flavours and textures to give them the best chance of a healthy diet, and that if given a choice between unhealthy and healthy food, children tend to gravitate to the healthy stuff over time!

4. As it is now cheaper than before for genome mapping, should everyone have their genome mapped so that we can design or give interventions for diseases much earlier?

There was definitely a difference in opinion here! Some were in favour as it would be interesting to know what your genome says about you and your future health, but for those reasons, some would rather not know what lies ahead of them! Getting our genome mapped would be so fascinating, but what’s more important is knowing the results on a larger population scale, not just a few individuals. Could everyone’s genome be read at birth?

5. How do we draw the line between genetic modifications which improve health and those that give other perceived beneficial traits?

The opinions of the panel were divided on this one. Interesting, Prof. Neena Modi highlighted that by choosing who we have children with we’re actually selecting the traits we want to be carried on into the next generation. Is that a form of genetic modification? Advances in scientific technology are of course happening, and so we’ll see what happens in the future, but there could be some ethical dilemmas to figure out!

6. Should anyone be allowed to be a parent?

What a question to finish on! You could just see the whole audience lean out of their seats to see what the responses were going to be. Not surprisingly, a few of the panel did not want to respond with their personal thoughts! It’s a tricky one. The against side of this question were comments about how people such as paedophiles and murderers shouldn’t be allowed due to major impairments in their mental state. But we can’t live in a society which actively stops some people from conceiving children. That just leads down a nasty road and not very ethical! Lord Prof. Robert Winston threw the eugenics word into play! We of course already have framework in place to take children out of ‘bad’ homes. So although we can’t stop the reproductive process, and therefore the ‘nature’ side of development, we can to some extent tackle the ‘nurture’ element.

As you can probably tell this was a fantastic debate which gave me a lot of food for thought.

I just want to finish off with my personal highlight!

R.Winson interview

There are some exciting things coming from my work here, so watch this space!

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Now it’s your turn! How do YOU feel about these questions?! Let me know in the comments below!

Follow @uosIDS on Twitter to keep up-to-date with the research going on in this part of the world.

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